Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a nervous system developmental disease. Usually CP is referred to as a central movement disorder; which is caused by non-progressive cerebral injury or encephalodysplasia during pregnancy during childbirth or after birth up to about one month due to many reasons. The incidence of CP is about 1.2-2.5%, clinical features are abnormal in posture and muscular tension, involuntary movement and ataxia, which are usually associated with sensory disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorder, secondary skeletal muscle abnormalities and epileptic seizures. The non-progressive central movement disorders, which are also called acquired cerebral palsy, are caused by many reasons one month after birth. Approximately 10% of CP cases include: the cause of congenital brain disorder etiology, premature matrix hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, hypoxic ischemic injury, spastic diplegia, infantile hemiplegia, paraplegia and quadriplegia, extrapyramidal syndrome, hands athetosis, bilirubin encephalopathy, neonatal congenital ataxia, bridge cerebella dysplasia, flaccid paralysis, which all belong to the acquired development diseases. The diseases of intrauterine infection caused by intrauterine and neonatal infection, result in cerebral malformations and anomalies, that belong to infectious development diseases. Those patients show more or less symptoms of mental retardation.
There are many causes for CP, such as: genetic diseases, infectious diseases, cerebral dysplasia, cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage, etc. Though prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation are not the direct causes of CP, they are still the most important high risk factors.
The pathogenic factors in early trimester of pregnancy cause neuronal proliferation and migration anomalies and may cause agyria, pachygyria, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly and neuronal heterotopia. The most common pathological changes are periventricular leukomalacia and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction. Pathological changes are during development of the infant and there are many which show to be complex and are related to hypoxic ischemic brain damage. The marble state is caused by neuronal loss and gliosis with myelination increases, which is a typical change of kernicterus, which can be seen in the hypoxic ischemic brain damage as well.